My Thought: BBA Issue in Malaysia


1. You mentioned that the main issue of the BBA facilities is not about the selling price or right for rebate but concerns the fundamental issue of fiqh muamalat which extremely discourages any act of legal trick or fiqh hiyal as can be clearly found in the BBA instruments. Can you please explain in lay men’s term what all these means and how BBA consist of legal trick?

To address this issue, it is essential to have better understanding on the conceptual framework of Bay Bithaman Ajil (BBA) facility. Having in mind that people are sometimes confused with BBA and bay’ al-Inah, it is worth mentioning the difference between the two. BBA is only a mode of payment and BBA facility is actually structured under bay al-Inah concept. Bay’ al-Inah refers to the concept of buying and selling between two parties where the bank sells an asset (be it real or fictitious) to the customer on a deferred payment and then the financier immediately repurchases the asset for cash at a discount or vice versa. As a simple illustration, we may refer to the mechanism used in personal financing. Customer X needs cash for his personal consumption and applies for personal financing based on concept of bay al-Inah. To facilitate the financing arrangement, Bank X will sell a computer or a small lot of its fixed asset to the customer on deferred payment at selling price of RM5000 and then immediately repurchases the computer for cash at a discount price of RM4000. This kind of practice is questionable since the real intention of the contract is not for actual sale transaction but to provide cash to the customer. In the absence of several elements of valid contract, I am of the view that this kind of practice may constitute legal device which is quite equivalent to interest-based financing.

Although contract of Inah is confirmed from Shafi’i point of view which is even hardly to prove with satisfactorily evidence that he has expressly declared its validity, it is nevertheless condemned by numerous fuqaha as it has been seen as something similar to riba-based financing. The Malikis, Hanbalis, Ibnu Taymiyah, Ibnu Qayyim and contemporary fuqaha such as Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Wahbah Al-Zuhailiy and others vividly hold that contract of Inah is not valid. If this is not sufficient to convince the proponents of bay al-Inah, perhaps judgment of the High Court in the case of Arab Malaysian Finance Berhad vs Taman Ihsan Jaya and Ors provides a strong message about the status of bay al-Inah. Despite of the High Court judgment was overruled by the Court of Appeal, the decision made by the learned judge at least effectively highlighted several significance issues on the validity and actual implementation of BBA facility.

2. Since no one has appealed against the Court of Appeal’s decision that favoured the banks, what can consumers of BBA do in the event they default?

Besides going to the court of justice as a settlement of last resort, there are several avenues available for the consumers. They may consult the Bank Negara Malaysia Laman Informasi Nasihat dan Khidmat, the Association of Islamic Banking Institutions of Malaysia and any other consumer associations. These institutions may provide some assistance, guidance and information for any potential settlement or action that needs to be taken for the consumers.

In addition, as an ex-in-house legal counsel for one of Islamic banks in Malaysia, I personally view that the best approach for the consumers is to discuss and consult the extent of their indebtedness with the financial institutions. I believe that the financial institutions are surely willing to offer various financial arrangements to the consumers for possible settlements either via refinancing, rescheduling or any other available financial instruments. As far as I concern, the financial institutions mainly concern about debt recovery and the consumers on the other hand if possible try to avoid any legal action against them. At this point, mutual understanding and agreement based on mutual consideration on any settlement of debt by both the financial institutions and the consumers are much more preferable.

3. Do you think Bank Negara should intervene in some way? How and what should be done?

I agree that the Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) may interfere to certain extent. But I would like to insist here that any intervention or roles play by the BNM will only provides solution from regulator’s perspective. For instance, the initiative taken by the BNM to introduce the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009 which affirms the authority of the National Shari’ah Advisory Council (SAC) as the sole authoritative body on Shari’ah matters pertaining to Islamic banking, takaful and Islamic finance is commendable. This recent amendment enhances the status of the SAC’s rulings to be binding upon the court as well as arbitration.

While affirming the essence of regulation to provide strong and robust framework for Islamic finance, I also have strong faith on the institutional and community approaches. The institutional approach requires the financial institutions to pro-actively consider the overall issue in Islamic finance which may affect the industry as a whole. In this regard, product innovation and financial engineering with maqasid Shari’ah as the paramount consideration for Islamic financial products are much needed. To complement this, community approach that nurtures the demand towards truly Islamic and Shari’ah-based financing products may create motivation to financial institutions to offer such kind of financing instruments.

4. What is your advice to consumers who are planning to take up BBA?

In the context of Malaysian consumer perspective, they do not have much choice about the availability of financing facilities particularly retail products. Furthermore, the consumers are motivated with price and package of financing that suit their needs and financial capabilities. Hence there must be a paradigm shift on the consumer’s way of thinking and approach towards Islamic financial products including BBA. While believing that education and awareness about general understanding of Islamic financial products on the part of consumer are of the essence, I am of the view that the consumers must also be very diligent and concern about the mechanism of Islamic financial products that they plan to subscribe. With the basic knowledge of contemporary applied Islamic finance, then the consumer may be able to influence the market particularly financial institutions to satisfy their needs towards Shari’ah-based financing.

5. Can our banks sell things to customers? From what I understand, a bank is supposed to be a financial institution that gives out loans to clients, not sell goods. Is the role of the housing loan in BBA then contradicts the banking laws in any way? Must BBA housing loan adhere only to the Islamic Banking Act or must also adhere to BAFIA?

Let me first address the issue on the IBA and the BAFIA in order to clarify the framework of these both acts. The IBA is relevant to full fledged Islamic banks while the BAFIA particularly section 124 is concerned upon Islamic window i.e. conventional banks that offer Islamic financial services. In this regard, Section 124 (6) specifically exempts the application of the BAFIA to Islamic banks. In other words, Islamic banks shall adhere to the IBA and Islamic window to the BAFIA.

As regard to the second issue, section 33 and Section 66 of the BAFIA 1989 provides certain restriction on trading and investment in which the former require the banks to not to engage in any trading business other than its licensed business and the latter restricts the banks to have any shares in companies as well as immovable property. BNM nevertheless has the authority to give exemption on these restrictions. Furthermore, section 124 (1) allows Islamic window to carry on Islamic banking business or Islamic financial business in addition to its existing licensed business. At this point, Islamic banking business or Islamic financial business refers to any business that free from element which is not approved by religion of Islam and this includes sale or trading transaction such as in the case of BBA.

7. Do you think the BBA contradicted both the laws as ruled by the High Court Judge (before the decision was overturned)?

As highlighted by the learned judge in this case, I personally view that it is a matter of interpretation. There is no single definition of BBA or other Islamic financial instruments either in the IBA or the BAFIA. Moreover, the absence of precise definition of Islamic banking business leads to uncertainty and vagueness. Both the IBA and BAFIA are general, non-exhaustive and non-comprehensive. If this issue has not been resolved, I will not be surprised that there will be another controversial court’s judgment which may give huge implications to Islamic finance industry in the future. Perhaps, the recent Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009 (CBA) may resolve this issue where it is mandatory for the court or arbitrator to refer the National Shari’ah Advisory Council for deliberation on any Shari’ah issue. Despite of this recent legal development, it is worth noting that the CBA has jurisdiction to only in matters fall under the auspices of the BNM, so as to exclude the Shari’ah board in the Securities Commission. This is another grey area that needs to be resolved.

“Wisdom is knowing what to do next, skill is knowing how to do it, and virtue is doing it.” By David Starr Jordan

Best Regards

  • With Dr. Hussain Pirashteh and Dr. Abdul Rahman Haqi in Dubai, UAE


    Would Islamic Finance Prevent Another Financial Crisis?


    Dear Readers,

    Another brief article in “Utusan Malaysia”. Click here: Would Islamic Finance Prevent Another Financial Crisis?

    “What we know about the global financial crisis is that we don’t know very much.”
    [Paul A. Samuelson]

    Enjoy reading!

    Best Regards


    The Effect of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009: Part VII, Section 51-58


    Dear Readers,

    Malaysian government took a further step in enhancing the framework of Shari’ah governance by passing the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009 (CBA). This new legislation was passed by the Parliament in July 2009 which received royal assent on 19 August and gazetted on 3rd September 2009. The CBA consists of 100 sections divided into 15 parts. Unlike the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958, the CBA inserts new provision in Part VII which covers provision pertaining to Islamic financial business. I take this opportunity to elaborate the effect of section 51-58 of the CBA that enhances the framework of Shari’ah governance in Malaysia.

    Section 51-58 of the CBA clarifies and enhances Shari’ah governance framework in Malaysia in the following aspects: –

    (i) It grants authority to the Central Bank of Malaysia (BNM) to establish the National Shari’ah Advisory Council (SAC) and to specify its distinctive functions as well as secretariat to assist the SAC in carrying out its definitive roles. This vividly clarifies the roles and responsibilities of the SAC as the highest and sole authority in Islamic financial matters.

    (ii) In parallel with the status of the SAC as the highest authority in matters pertaining to Islamic banking, finance and takaful, the appointment of the SAC members shall be made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The SAC’s remuneration and the terms of reference then shall be determined by the BNM.

    (iii) It sets the minimum fit and proper criteria of the SAC members. The candidate must at least knowledgeable and qualified in Shari’ah or has appropriate knowledge and experience in banking, finance and law. Section 53 of the CBA also allows expert in other related disciplines as well as judges of the civil court and shari’ah court to be the SAC members. This provision is unique as combination of mixed expertise amongst the SAC members would potentially contribute towards more solid and sound Shari’ah rulings.

    (iv) The defunct of section 16B of the Central Bank of Malaysia (Amendment) Act 2003 merely provides that the Shari’ah rulings issued by the SAC are binding upon the arbitrator. Section 57 of the CBA then affirms the legal status of Shari’ah pronouncement issued by the SAC to be binding upon both the court as well as arbitration.

    (v) The court or arbitrator is not obligated to refer the SAC to resolve any Shari’ah issue in the previous regulation. Section 58 of the CBA on the other hand makes it mandatory for the court or arbitrator to refer the SAC for deliberation on any Shari’ah issue as well must take into account its existing Shari’ah rulings.

    (vi) It clarifies the status of Shari’ah ruling issued by the SAC in the event it contradicts with Shari’ah pronouncement of Shari’ah committee at individual Islamic financial institution (IFI). The Shari’ah rulings of the SAC shall prevail and have binding force over the Shari’ah resolutions of Shari’ah committee of IFI.

    For full version of the CBA, click here:- The Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009

    Law is order, and good law is good order. [Aristotle]

    Best Regards

  • Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Muscat, Oman

    The 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World

    “The 500 Most Influential Muslims 2009,” edited by Professors John Esposito and İbrahim Kalın.

    1. His Majesty King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia,
    2. His Eminence Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sayyid Ali Khamenei,Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran
    3. His Majesty King Mohammed VI, King of Morocco
    4. His Majesty King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein, King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
    5. His Excellency Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey
    6. His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Sa’id al Sa’id, Sultan of Oman
    7. His Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hussein Sistani, Marja of the Hawza, Najaf
    8. His Eminence Sheikh Al Azhar Dr Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi, Grand Sheikh of the Al Azhar University,
    9. Sheikh Dr Yusuf Qaradawi, Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars
    10. His Eminence Sheikh Dr Ali Goma’a, Grand Mufti of the Arab, Republic of Egypt
    11. His Eminence Sheikh Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdullah Aal al Sheikh, Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    12. Mohammad Mahdi Akef, Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood
    13. Hodjaefendi Fethullah Güllen, Turkish Muslim Preacher
    14. Amr Khaled, Preacher and Social Activist
    15. Hajji Mohammed Abd al Wahhab, Ameer of the Tablighi Jamaat, Pakistan
    16. His Royal Eminence Amirul Mu’minin Sheikh as Sultan Muhammadu Sa’adu Abubakar III, Sultan of Sokoto
    17. Seyyed Hasan Nasrallah, Secretary General of Hezbollah
    18. Dr KH Achmad Hasyim Muzadi, Chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesia
    19. Sheikh Salman al Ouda, Saudi Scholar and Educator
    20. His Highness Shah Karim al Hussayni, The Aga Khan IV, 49th Imam of the Ismaili Muslims
    21. His Highness Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai, Prime Minister of the UAE
    22. His Highness General Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi
    23. Sheikh Dr M Sa’id Ramadan al Bouti, Leading Islamic Scholar in Syria
    24. His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah, Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam
    25. His Eminence Professor Dr Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad al Tayeb, President of Al Azhar University
    26. His Eminence Mohammad bin Mohammad al Mansour, Imam of the Zaidi Sect of Shi‘a Muslims
    27. His Eminence Justice Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Leading Scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence, Pakistan
    28. His Excellency President Abdullah Gül, President of the Republic of Turkey
    29. Sheikh Mohammad Ali al Sabouni, Scholar of Tafsir
    30. His Eminence Sheikh Abdullah Bin Bayyah, Deputy-Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars
    31. Her Eminence Sheikha Munira Qubeysi, Leader of the Qubeysi Movement
    32. His Eminence Sheikh Ahmad Tijani Ali Cisse, Leader of Tijaniyya Sufi Order
    33. Sheikh al Habib Umar bin Hafiz, Director of Dar al Mustafa, Tarim, Yemen
    34. Khaled Mashaal, Leader of Hamas
    35. Professor Dr M Din Syamsuddin, Chairman of Muhammadiyya, Indonesia
    36. Maulana Mahmood Madani, Secretary General of Jamiat Ulemae-Hind, India
    37. Sheikh Habib Ali Zain al Abideen al Jifri, Director General of the Tabah Foundation, UAE
    38. Sheikh Hamza Yusuf Hanson, Founder of Zaytuna Institute, USA
    39. His Eminence Sheikh Professor Dr Mustafa Ceric, Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    40. His Excellency Professor Dr Ekmelledin Ihsanoglu, Secretary General of the OIC
    41. General Mohammad Ali Jafari, Commander of the Revolutionary Guard, Iran
    42. Dato’ Haji Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat, Religious Guide of the Islamic Party of Malaysia
    43. Motiur Rahman Nizami, Ameer of the Jamaat-e-Islami, Bangladesh
    44. Professor Sayid Ameen Mian Qaudri, Barelwi Leader and Spiritual Guide
    45. His Holiness Dr Syedna Mohammad Burhannuddin Saheb, 52nd Da‘i l-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohras
    46. Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistani Nuclear Scientist
    47. Professor Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Philosopher
    48. Abdullah ‘Aa Gym’ Gymnastiar, Indonesian Preacher
    49. Sheikh Mehmet Nazim Adil al Qubrusi al Haqqani, Leader of Naqshbandi-Haqqani Sufi Order
    50. Dr Abd al Aziz bin Uthman Altwaijiri, Secretary General of the Islamic Educational.
    450. Dato’ Seri Anwar Ibrahim- The PKR De Facto Leader.

    For full list of the 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World, click here: The 500 most influential Muslims in the world

    Best Regards

    The leaders who work most effectively, it seems to me, never say “I.” And that’s not because they have trained themselves not to say “I.” They don’t think “I.” They think “we”; they think “team.” They understand their job to be to make the team function. They accept responsibility and don’t sidestep it, but “we” gets the credit. This is what creates trust, what enables you to get the task done. By Peter Drucker

  • Estadio Santiago Bernabeu, Madrid, Espania

    Luxembourg advised of more involvement in Islamic finance

    By Mushtak Parker Available at:

    THE Luxembourg office of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) in a report on Islamic finance published at the end of October 2009, has urged greater involvement and visibility from the Luxembourg government and regulators if it is serious about establishing the principality as a European Islamic finance hub especially for Islamic funds and sukuk.

    Compared to regulators in the UK, Ireland and France, the Luxembourg regulators have never approached their counterparties in target countries such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain and Malaysia to seek cooperation on Islamic finance.

    PWC, the international auditors and consultancy, has based its report on the recommendations and conclusions drawn from an Islamic finance meeting. The report suggests that Islamic finance is an important niche business for Luxembourg. Some 16 sukuks are already listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange. For instance, the $1.5bn Petronas EMAS sukuk issuance in August 2009 was listed in Luxembourg in preference to the London Stock Exchange.

    In addition, there are more than 31 Islamic investment funds, mainly global equity and real estate funds, registered and domiciled in Luxembourg. The PWC report stressed that the future target of Luxembourg Islamic funds should be investors in Europe, although this will require an educational process to attract investors amongst Europe’s Muslim population of around 20-25 million. The report also stressed that Luxembourg should leverage its strong private banking industry, its good reputation and its cost-competitiveness as a financial center. As such, there is a potential for cross selling Shariah-compliant products to these investors.

    In a rare foray into Islamic finance, Yves Mersch, governor of the Central Bank of Luxembourg, in a speech at the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) in Kuala Lumpur earlier this year, stressed that “despite the current turbulences, the market practitioners of Islamic finance in Luxembourg remain optimistic that Islamic finance is likely to grow steadily in the next few years based on investors’ appetite for financial products based on sound ethical principles.”

    Mersch warned that numerous challenges remain, however, including regulatory changes, legal certainty, illiquidity issues, liquidity management risk concerns, the need for harmonized regulation, regulatory disparity amongst national supervisors and a lack of level playing field. It is crucial to ensure that Shariah principles are able to accommodate the innovative products which would allow the integration of Islamic finance into the international financial system.

    Mersch confirmed that market players in Luxembourg want formal recognition of Islamic financial products and accounting standards. “Our authorities have proved pragmatic, innovative and adaptive to the financial landscape. According to discussions currently being held at the national level, this will also be the case with regard to Islamic finance,” he declared.

    Although the Luxembourg authorities have set up an Islamic finance Taskforce, bringing in various regulators, professional associations and market players, actual progress in the facilitation of Islamic financial products in Luxembourg remains slow and bureaucratic. It would be difficult to have full fledged Islamic banking operations in Luxembourg due to a legal and regulatory framework. For example, it is not possible for Luxembourg banks to provide bank accounts without any risk cap, which is typical for an Islamic bank. In addition, Islamic banking requires banks to have partnership accounts.

    The PWC report also highlighted concerns from market players in Luxembourg about various risks associated with various Islamic financial products and practices, although some of these concerns betray some ignorance about Islamic finance. Islamic funds are almost all done through manual transactions. This leads to higher risk, for example accounting of revenues and purification of interest. Compliance issues such as eligible assets and investment restrictions are not monitored, as these are dealt typically by Shariah boards. There is also a perception of a lack of information sharing in relation to cleansing and eligible charitable organizations. The report calls for rules of charities should be demystified. However, the total amount of money purified is insignificant and money laundering risk is therefore limited as most of the Shariah compliant funds in Luxembourg are equity funds.

    These latter points are unimaginable in markets such as Malaysia and even Turkey. Perhaps it reflects more on the inability of the fund managers and their lack of engagement in navigating through these issues. Sharing of information is a requisite in Islamic finance otherwise the transaction could be non-permissible because of Gharar (deception or non-disclosure), which is proscribed by the Shariah. Such concerns are not new and typical of some jurisdictions new to Islamic finance.

    Fiduciary risk is not much different than for conventional funds with respect to OTC (over the counter) products. A large portion of sukuk is listed and managers have not yet invested in sukuk privately placed, thus mitigating risk to a certain extend. Assets are generally held by sub-custodians implying settlement and custody risk.

    The report also stresses that default risk must also be taken into account since the emergence of the first occurrences of sukuk defaults earlier this year, which include East Cameron Gas Sukuk, the Investment Dar Sukuk, and the SAAD/Al-Gosaibi Sukuk. In terms of valuation risk, the report stressed that there is no clarity on valuation parameter for investments to be obtained by counterparties or the Shariah board. The report also identified a number of compliance risks. Participants, for instance, mentioned that no Shariah compliance checks are made as it is not a market practice and it is the responsibility of the Shariah board.

    A service fund administration can send a report to the board of directors but will not check if investments are Shariah-compliant. Shariah compliance is part of the investment policy and should be checked by the manager from an eligibility an d risk spreading point of view. The question remains, however, if asset managers have the knowledge to check such compliance issues. It is, however, difficult to put the compliance checks in a system in comparison with conventional funds as compliance rules might be non-standard (changing) and are somehow based on judgment. This requires more flexibility than for a conventional fund.

    Good advice is always certain to be ignored, but that’s no reason not to give it By Agatha Christie

    Best Regards

  • International Conference on Syariah and Common Law
  • International Conference on Shari’ah and Common Law, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Two reasons for Islamic finance’s move into world financial system

    By DALJIT DHESI Available at:

    The accelerated development of Islamic financial markets and increased liberalisation are the two important trends which have increased the integration of Islamic finance into the international financial system, according to Bank Negara governor Tan Sri Dr Zeti Akhtar Aziz. In her keynote address entitled “Islamic Finance: A Central Bank’s Perspective” at a seminar on Islamic finance in Rome on Wednesday night, she said: “The development in the Islamic financial markets has contributed to the availability of a wide spectrum of Islamic financial instruments that ranged from instruments to manage liquidity, to structures for financing of mega investments.”

    Her speech text was released to news organisations yesterday.

    “The higher level of foreign participation in the Islamic financial markets has resulted in the increase in cross border flows in the international Islamic financial system thereby, enhancing international financial linkages between financial systems,” she said. Liberalisation, Zeti added, had also brought greater foreign institutional presence in Islamic financial systems, resulting in greater diversity of players and strengthening further international financial linkages.

    Malaysia had very much been part of this process, she noted. In 2003, the Islamic financial system was liberalised to allow for increased foreign presence. In 2007, the sukuk market was liberalised to allow the raising of funds by eligible corporates from any part of the world in any currency. This year, the first foreign currency sukuk of US$1.5bil was successfully issued by Petronas, which was significantly oversubscribed by investors from Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

    As part of an international collaborative effort, Zeti said a Task Force on Liquidity Management was set up by the the Islamic Financial Services Board and the Islamic Development Bank early this year to develop solutions to enhance the efficiency of Islamic financial institutions in managing liquidity at both the national and international levels. Another area of international collaboration is in the promotion of value-added investments in human capital to ensure the sustainable growth of the Islamic financial industry.

    The International Centre for Education in Islamic Finance (INCEIF) in Malaysia was set up by the central bank with programmes for practitioners and post-graduate studies to ensure the continuous supply of talent in Islamic finance. At present, INCEIF students come from more than 60 countries, including Britian, Canada, France and Japan, South Korea and the Middle East. “Equally important to innovative development is a deeper understanding of syariah and knowledge of Islamic finance and for a greater convergence in the theoretical understanding and practical considerations in resolving the contemporary issues faced by Islamic financial industry players,” Zeti said.

    An economist is an expert who will know tomorrow why the things he predicted yesterday didn’t happen today By Laurence J. Peter

    Best Regards

  • Dubai 2008
  • Dubai, UAE