THE MIRACLE OF RAMADHAN AND FASTING

THE MIRACLE OF RAMADHAN AND FASTING

Introduction

Ramadhan is the greatest month and the best time for self-regulation and self-training. There are numerous benefits to those who are fasting during Ramadhan either from spiritual or physical perspectives. The positive effects of Ramadhan and fasting have not only been mentioned in al Quran and al Sunnah but also by many scientific researches. In fact, there are few institutions specifically established to promote fasting as a way to prevent and heal diseases such as “Fasting Center International Incorporation” in the United States of America. This brief article attempts to highlight several interesting findings about Ramadhan and Fasting effects from four different perspectives namely economic, health and sciences, psychological and social point of views.

The Miracle of Ramadhan and Fasting

Economic Perspective

According to the study undertaken by the University of New Hampshire led by Iranian-born finance Professor Ahmad Etebari, stocks in largely Muslim nations outperform during the month of Ramadhan. It is found that on average, stock returns are 9 times higher during Ramadhan than other times of year. The phenomenon is called the “Ramadan Effect.”

Between the stock markets of Bahrain, Oman, Turkey, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Pakistan, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, the report identified a trend of considerably higher returns during Ramadhan as compared to other months. The study found that the average returns for the 15 countries from the database of 1989 to 2007 were 38% during the month of Ramadhan as compared to an average of 4.3% during ordinary months. The research reveals that that the social cohesion and institutional feelings attains during Ramadhan help influence the investments behavior.

Health and Science Perspective

In 1994 the first International Congress on “Health and Ramadhan”, held in Casablanca, entered 50 research papers from all over the world from Muslim and non-Muslim researchers who have done extensive studies on the medical ethics of fasting. The congress made recommendations that Ramadhan fasting is an ideal method for treatment of mild to moderate, stable, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity and essential hypertension.

Allan Cott, in his famous book “Why Fast”, states that fasting has the effects to clean out the body; to lower blood pressure and cholesterol and to let the body heals itself. Another interesting finding refers to the ability of fasting habit to slow the aging process based on a research conducted by Dr. Yuri Nikolayev, Moscow scientist and dietician/nutritionist. This finding is supported with another research by Dr. Alvenia M. Fulton, by which his experiment indicates that fasting is the ladies best beautifier, brings grace charm and poise, normalizes female functions and reshapes the body contour.

Psychological Perspective

As regard to psychological point of view, it is empirically proven that fasting can bring positive effects to psychological and mental health. At this point, Dr. Sabah al-Baqir from Medical Faculty of University of King Saud reveals that fasting will generate specific hormone which may relieve tension and to make a person to feel better physically and mentally.

Social Perspective

Crime Rate

I believe that this is phenomenal in many jurisdictions all over the world. According to the statistic produced by the Iranian Police Department, the Iran’s overall crime rate and murder rate have declined during the holy month of Ramadhan. There has been a 32% decline in homicides and the overall crime rate has dropped significantly. It is worth noting that the homicide rate in Iran is six murders per day and Iran stands 50th in the world in the homicide rate.

Family Institutions

Ramadhan is the best time for family and social gathering. The Maktoob Research in UAE conducted a survey on the opinions of 6,128 adult Muslims from across the Arab world about Ramadhan. The survey reveals that 96% of Muslim Arabs observing the fasting month and it is also found that 86% of those surveyed tend to observe iftar as a good opportunity for family gatherings. This finding indirectly indicates that fasting during Ramadhan can strengthen the family institutions and community as well as provide best opportunity for the unity of the ummah.

Generosity

Considering to numerous hadith on the rewards and benefits of sadaqah (charity) during the month of Ramadhan, it is observed that the willingness and efforts for charity and donation are significantly increased. According to Lung Transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of TB and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran, organ shortage is the most significant problem that they face for the activities of trans¬plantation systems. In this regard, they carried out a survey on the Muslims’ behavior during holy month of Ramadan pertaining to organs donation in Iran. Interestingly, the survey reveals that the number of applications for organs donation in Ramadhan increase to 154% as compared to other months with a total of 11528 organ donations as opposed to 4538 applications in the previous month. This phenomenon indicates that Ramadhan seems to provide a great opportunity to promote organs donation across the Muslim world.

Conclusion

Ramadhan is the greatest and best month of the year. It is one of the blessings of Allah to the Muslim that He enables us to fast in Ramadhan. The blessed month of Ramadhan and ibadah of fasting not only offer us with great rewards from Allah but also with so many benefits either from economic or health and science, psychological or social perspectives. With this priceless opportunity from Allah to us, it is hoped that we can keep the spirit of month of Ramadhan not only during this blessed month but at all times and throughout the year.

References

Azizi, F. (1987). Evaluation of Certain Hormones and Blood Constituents During Islamic Fasting Month, Journal of Islamic Medical Association, November.

Cott, A. (1977). Fasting Is A Way Of Life. New York: Bantam Books.

Hassan Abohghasemi, Nasim Sadat Hosseini Divkalayi and Fariba Seighali. (2011). Contribution of religion to blood donation: Iran experience, Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, 5(2), pp. 185–186.

Katayoun Najafizadeh, Fariba Ghorbani, Sajjad Hamidinia, Mohammad Ali Emamhadi, Mohammad Ali Moinfar, Omid Ghobadi,Shervin Assari. (2010). Holy month of Ramadan and increase in organ donation willingness, Saudi Journal of Kidney Disease and Transplantation, 21, pp. 443-446.

Maktoob Research. (2008). Region-wide Survey on Ramadan Traditions and Practices. Dubai: Maktoob Research.

Scott Malone . (2010). Markets in Muslim Lands Rally During Ramadan-Study. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/08/03/stocks-ramadan-idUSN0317695120100803.

Soliman, N. (1987). Effects of Fasting During Ramadan, Journal of Islamic Medical Association, November.

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

With Dr. Mustafa Ceric, Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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RAMADHAN MEDAN ISLAH AL NAFS (REFORMASI DIRI)

RAMADHAN MEDAN ISLAH AL NAFS (REFORMASI DIRI)

Pendahuluan

Pada 1961, Presiden Habib Burguiba mengejutkan seluruh rakyat Tunisia apabila mengiystiharkan larangan berpuasa di bulan Ramadhan bagi semua penjawat awam. Bagi menunjukkan komitmen larangan ini, seluruh anggota Kabinet telah mengadakan majlis makan tengahari dan ditayangkan secara langsung di media elektronik. Arahan tegahan untuk berpuasa di bulan Ramadhan ini di buat berdasarkan andaian bahawa ianya akan mengurangkan produktiviti dan ini tidak baik untuk negara.

Tindakan yang dibuat oleh Presiden Habib Burguiba ini jelas menunjukkan kejahilan dan ketidaktahuan sejarah Islam. Sejarah telah mencatatkan banyak peristiwa penting umat Islam berlaku pada bulan Ramadhan. Ramadhan bukan menjadi penghalang kepada produktiviti mahupun penyebab kemunduran bahkan ianya adalah bulan kemenangan bagi umat Islam. Bermula dari penurunan wahyu pertama kepada Rasulullah Sallallahualaihiwasallam diikuti kemenangan umat Islam dalam peperangan Badar, Khandaq dan Hunain, penaklukan kota Mekah serta kejayaan mendapatkan kembali bumi Al Aqsa semasa era Salahuddin al Ayubi. Pada bulan Ramadhan juga empayar Rome ditakluki dan seterusnya menjadikan negara Islam sebagai salah satu kuasa besar.

Berbanding dengan zaman kegemilangan umat Islam terdahulu, pada masa ini, sesungguhnya umat Islam melalui masa-masa getir dengan pelbagai peristiwa dan tragedi yang berlaku di serata dunia. Walaupun kesemua negara Islam telah mencapai kemerdekaan setelah dijajah puluhan atau ratusan tahun, umat Islam masih berada dalam keadaan yang menyedihkan. Dengan mengenang nasib umat Islam di Syria, Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq, Selatan Thailand dan Filipina, Sudan, Bosnia, Chechnya, China dan lain-lain yang tidak dapat ditulis dalam ruangan yang kecil ini, terdetik sejenak mengapakah peristiwa ini berlaku sedangkan umat Islam telah dianugerahi dengan nikmat Islam dan iman. Bahkan Ramadhan sudah semestinya menjadi institusi paling berkesan mendidik dan melatih umat Islam untuk kemajuan dan pembangunan. Sehubungan dengan itu, artikel ini serba sedikit akan mengupas intipati Ramadhan dan mengaitkannya dengan penghayatan kemerdekaan.

Carta Prestasi Umat Islam Seiring Dengan Sambutan Ramadhan

Seiring dengan sambutan Ramadhan yang sudah melebihi 1400 tahun, artikel ini cuba memberikan sedikit gambaran tentang status umat Islam pada hari ini. Dalam konteks Malaysia, penulis juga ingin berkongsi fakta mengenai keadaan umat Islam setelah 55 tahun kemerdekaan. Fakta-fakta ini bakal menimbulkan satu persoalan mengapa umat Islam pada hari ini termasuk di Malaysia masih ketinggalan, mundur dan miskin. Penulis berpandangan bahawa salah satu punca kemunduran umat Islam pada hari ini adalah kerana gagal untuk memahami dan menghayati intipati dan aspirasi Ramadhan.

Berkenaan dengan pendidikan, laporan yang dikeluarkan oleh Yarmouk Universiti mengenai kedudukan universiti dan penyelidikan umat Islam sesuai dijadikan rujukan untuk membuka minda mengenai status umat Islam. Laporan ini mencatatkan bahawa di 57 negara OIC, hanya terdapat lebih kurang 1000 universiti. Jika dibandingkan dengan negara lain, Jepun misalnya mempunyai 1000 universiti manakala di Amerika sahaja, terdapat 5,758 universiti.

57 Negara OIC ini juga ketinggalan dari aspek penyelidikan di mana hanya keluarkan lebih kurang 500 PhD setahun berbanding di UK sahaja melahirkan 5,000 graduan PhD. Didapati tiada negara Islam yang memperuntukkan lebih dari 0.5% daripada GDP untuk penyelidikan berbanding di Jepun, Amerika dan Jerman yang memperuntukkan sekurang-kurangnya 2.5% daripada GDP mereka. Begitu juga yang berlaku dari sudut penerbitan apabila direkodkan bahawa negara Islam hanya menerbitkan kira-kira 100,000 buku dan artikel penyelidikan daripada jumlah 2.1 juta naskhah yang telah diterbitkan di seluruh dunia. Bahkan, hingga kini tiada universiti di negara Islam yang tersenarai sebagai antara 100 terbaik di dunia.

Dari sudut ekonomi, direkodkan bahawa hampir separuh daripada 57 negara OIC diklasifikasikan sebagai ’Negara Berpendapatan Rendah’ dan ’Negara Miskin dan Tinggi Keberhutangn’. 70-85% daripada 1.6 billion orang Islam ini juga dikategorikan sebagai ’non-bankable’ dan 50% hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan serta 25% tiada akses pada kemudahan perubatan dan air bersih. Sebagai contoh revolusi di Tunisia tercetus akibat kesempitan hidup iaitu lebih 40% kadar pengangguran dan lebih 25% dilaporkan sebagai miskin tegar. Situasi yang sama berlaku di Mesir iaitu dengan 80 juta penduduk dan lebih 90% adalah Muslim, direkodkan hampir 50% penduduk adalah miskin dan kadar pengangguran juga mencecah lebih 10%.

Dari aspek GDP, walaupun negara OIC mewakili 70% daripada pengeluaran minyak dunia, GDPnya hanyalah 4.7% daripada GDP dunia, eksport hanya 7.9% daripada jumlah eksport dunia dan 1.3% daripada perdagangan dunia. GDP negara OIC melainkan Turki dan Indonesia adalah kecil daripada syarikat di senarai bursa saham di barat. Umpamanya, GDP Malaysia pada 2009 hanya USD193 billion hanya bersamaan dengan ’market capitalisation’ Google.

Kegagalan Menghayati Aspirasi Ramadhan Antara Punca Permasalahan

Merenung kepada fakta dan angka tersebut di atas, jelas menunjukkan umat Islam kini menghadapi krisis yang perlu ditangani segera. Persoalannya di sini, mengapa dan kenapa ianya berlaku sedangkan disepakati bahawa Islam itu agama yang syumul, sempurna dan merupakan cara hidup. Lebih-lebih lagi Islam memperuntukkan sebuah institusi pembersihan jiwa mendidik rohani dan jasmani yang perlu dilalui oleh setiap umat Islam selama sebulan setiap tahun.

Institusi Ramadhan merupakan sebuah institusi yang diperuntukkan khusus oleh Allah untuk melatih, mendidik, menyucikan jiwa dan fizikal umat Islam. Ia umpama sebuah kem, sekolah, universiti atau institusi lain yang menyediakan modul untuk membina kekuatan diri. Bagi memotivasikan umat Islam, Allah menjanjikan pelbagai insentif yang hampir mustahil untuk ditolak umpamanya malam ’lailatul qadr’ yang hanya ditawarkan kepada umat Nabi Muhammad Sallallahualaihiwasallam. Sekiranya ruh Ramadhan ini dihayati, umat Islam pasti selepas ini akan dapat mengembalikan kegemilangan Islam sepertimana yang dikecapi satu masa dahulu. Dengan itu, penulis berpandangan bahawa antara punca utama permasalahan yang berlaku hari ini ialah kegagalan umat Islam untuk menjadikan institusi Ramadhan sebagai medan membentuk syahsiah diri mencapai darjat ketaqwaan.

Memahami dan Menghayati Intipati Ramadhan

Kenapa Ramadhan?

Timbul persoalan mengapa Ramadhan amat penting sebagai institusi mendidik diri. Jawapannya sudah pastilah kerana ianya arahan Allah kepada hambanya agar dapat membina kekuatan jiwa dan iman melalui proses pentaqwaan diri. Kenapa pula Ramadhan dipilih sebagai institusi latihan dan ujian? Ini berkemungkinan amat berkait rapat dengan hadith Nabi Sallallahualaihiwasallam yang menyebut bahawa apabila Ramadhan menjelang tiba maka pintu syurga dibuka, ditutup pintu neraka serta dibelenggu para syaitan (Al-Bukhari dan Muslim).

Bertepatan dengan makna Ramadhan yang bermaksud panas iaitu bulan menghanguskan dosa, Allah telah memberikan peluang kepada umat Islam untuk beramal dan beribadah tanpa gangguan hasutan syaitan. Segala kelakuan dan perbuatan di bulan Ramadhan menjadi cermin sebenar tatkala syaitan dirantai daripada menghasut dan membisik. Allah telah memberikan peluang yang sangat tinggi nilainya ini untuk umat Islam membentuk dan membina syahsiah diri dengan hanya perlu berhadapan dengan hawa nafsu tanpa dipengaruhi oleh bisikan syaitan.

Taqwa Sebagai Objektif Ramadhan

Tidak dapat dinafikan pelbagai hikmah Ramadhan dan puasa yang dapat dibuktikan melalui kajian saintifik sehinggakan terdapat di Amerika, ‘Fasting Centre International Incorporation’ sebuah institusi yang mempromosikan puasa sebagai cara untuk mencegah dan memulihkan penyakit. Namun begitu, kelebihan berpuasa sama ada dari sudut kesihatan mahupun dari aspek yang lain bukanlah merupakan matlamat utama Ramadhan. Objektif utama Ramadhan dirakamkan oleh Allah dengan jelas di dalam al Quran iaitu untuk mencapai darjah ketaqwaan.

“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, diwajibkan atas kamu berpuasa sebagaimana diwajibkan atas orang-orang sebelum kamu agar kamu bertakwa” (Al-Baqarah: 183)

Melalui ayat di atas tersangatlah jelas bahawa melalui kalimah ‘la’alla’ itu yang bermaksud, ‘agar’ atau ‘semoga’ atau ‘mudah-mudahan’ menunjukkan matlamat sebenar puasa Ramadhan iaitu tidak lain dan tidak bukan mencapai makam taqwa. Kelebihan taqwa ini dinukilkan Allah di dalam surah al A’raf ayat 26 yang bermaksud “Hai anak Adam, sesungguhnya Kami telah menurunkan kepadamu pakaian untuk menutupi auratmu dan pakaian indah untuk perhiasan. Dan pakaian Taqwa itulah yang paling baik. Yang demikian itu adalah sebahagian dari tanda-tanda kekuasaan Allah, mudah-mudahan mereka selalu ingat”.

Sekiranya dirujuk kembali, pengertian taqwa bukan sahaja bererti takut namun ianya juga membawa maksud yang lebih luas. Ibn Kathir menyatakan taqwa berasal daripada perkataan tawaqqi, iaitu menjaga diri daripada perkara yang tidak diingini. Imam Ibn Kathir menerangkan Taqwa di dalam tafsirnya dengan merujuk kisah dialog Umar al Khattab dan Ubay bin Kaab. Dalam kisah ini Ubay memberikan analogi Taqwa dengan perumpamaan orang melalui jalan berduri di mana sudah pastinya seseorang itu berhati-hati bagi mengelakkan terpijak duri.

Bagi merumuskan makna taqwa, kata-kata daripada Ali Bin Abi Talib sangat relevan untuk dirujuk. Beliau merumuskan ciri taqwa itu kepada empat iaitu takut kepada azab dan murka Allah, yakin dengan al Quran, redha dengan sedikit nikmat dan sedia menghadapi hari kematian. Keempat-empat ciri inilah yang menjadikan seorang yang bertaqwa itu mempunyai peribadi unggul dan jiwa yang merdeka.

Di samping memahami taqwa sebagai matlamat Ramadhan, ianya juga membuktikan keadilan Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah menilai seseorang itu melalui kaca mata taqwa dan bukan dari kualiti yang lain. Taqwa itu boleh dicapai oleh sesiapa sahaja sama ada individu itu kaya, miskin, gemuk, kurus, cantik, kurang upaya, ternama dan sebagainya. Melalui penilaian taqwa ini Allah jelas menunjukkan keadilannya di mana semua manusi berpotensi untuk mencapai makam taqwa dan seterusnya mendapat kasih dan rahmat Allah.

Ruh Ramadhan Hayati Kemerdekaan

Tahun ini kita akan mencapai kemerdekaan yang ke-55 dengan tema “Janji Ditepati”. Walaupun tidak dapat dinafikan bahawa tema Hari Kemerdekaan tahun ini agak berunsurkan politik, tetapi bulan kemerdekaan tahun ini adalah sangat bermakna kerana ianya juga berada di dalam bulan Ramadhan yang mulia. Seiring dengan ruh Ramadhan ini, penghayatan kemerdekaan kali ini sepatutnya menjadi lebih bermakna dan menerbitkan kefahaman yang mendalam kepada konsep mencapai kemerdekaan dan juga mengisi kemerdekaan. Kemerdekaan lebih 55 tahun lalu bukanlah satu perkara yang mudah dicapai. Namun begitu, agenda mengisi kemerdekaan itu adalah perkara yang lebih sukar. Ini bersesuaian dengan nukilan para hukama’ yang menyatakan jihad melawan nafsu adalah lebih besar dari jihad melawan musuh Islam.

Di Mana Umat Islam Malaysia Selepas Kemerdekaan?

Dengan bilangan penduduk Malaysia yang mencecah 28.3 juta, bilangan penagih dadah juga meningkat setiap tahun. Direkodkan setiap hari akan ada 12 penagih baru dan kini bilangan penagih dadah telah melebihi 1.3 juta orang. Lebih menyedihkan umat Islam mewakili 80% angka ini iaitu 1.04 juta manakal Cina, 149,000 dan India, 101,000. Kos penyelenggaraan mereka ini juga menelas kos yang amat besar iaitu mencecah RM8.65 bilion.

Dari sudut ekonomi, walaupun Malaysia telah berjaya menurunkan kadar kemiskinan sejak kemerdekaan, namun didapati umat Islam masih lagi mendominasi statistik penduduk miskin. Sebanyak 5.3% umat Islam dikategorikan sebagai miskin berbanding Cina, 0.6% dan India, 2.5%. Dianggarkan lebih 75% orang miskin di Malaysia adalah umat Islam.

Merujuk kepada fenomena jenayah, Statistik Yayasan Pencegahan Jenayah Malaysia melaporkan statistik kes rogol membabitkan pelajar kian meningkat dan pada tahun 2008 sebanyak 309 kes direkodkan di mana majoriti yang terlibat adalah orang Melayu. Selain daripada itu, Polis DiRaja Malaysia (PDRM) juga merekodkan seramai 8,809 pelajar berusia antara 7 dan 18 tahun terlibat dalam kes-kes jenayah yang mana sebanyak 72.7% adalah umat Islam berbanding India, 10% dan dan Cina, 7.3%. Lebih menyedihkan, kes buang bayi juga didominasi oleh umat Islam apabila PDRM melaporkan lebih 80% yang didakwa terlibat adalah umat Islam.

Taqwa Sebagai Asas Penghayatan Kemerdekaan

Ketaqwaan merupakan satu bentuk penghambaan diri hanya kepada Allah iaitu membebaskan diri secara total dari perhambaan dengan manusia. Apa guna kemerdekaan dicapai sekiranya jiwa, pemikiran dan cara berfikir masih lagi berada di bawah ruang lingkup yang tidak merdeka. Kemerdekaan itu amat sia-sia jika ianya tidak diisi dengan agenda umat. Lebih malang lagi apa yang berlaku ialah kemerdekaan yang dicapai selepas penjajahan itu diganti dengan bentuk penjajahan lain seperti pemerintahan diktator yang dilihat lebih kejam sebagaimana yang berlaku di Tunisia yang diperintah secara zalim oleh rejim Habib Borguiba dan Ben Ali, di Mesir yang dizalimi puluhan tahun oleh rejim Anwar Sadat, Gamal Nasir dan Husni Mubarak dan di Syria yang ditadbir secara kuku besi berserta kezaliman yang melampau.

Dalam konteks Malaysia, walaupun tidak dinafikan negara telah mencapai kemajuan namun begitu, masih terdapat banyak permasalahan dan krisis sosial yang berlaku pada umat Islam. Berdasarkan fakta yang tersebut di atas, jelas menunjukkan umat Islam di Malaysia masih lagi dibelenggu masalah sosial, ekonomi dan lain-lain. Permasalahan penagihan dadah, jenayah, kemiskinan, pendidikan dan sebagainya masih menghantui dan membelenggu umat Islam. Penulis berpandangan di antara punca permasalahan ini ialah kerana kegagalan menghayati ruh Ramadhan dan juga umat Islam menghadapi krisis taqwa. Sekiranya taqwa itu dijadikan sebagai dasar pembangunan diri, bangsa dan negara sudah pasti umat Islam akan kembali dihormati dan mendapat kedudukan yang sewajarnya.

Islah Al Nafs ’Reformasi Diri’ Ke arah Ketaqwaan?

Secara umumnya amalan umat Islam dalam bulan Ramadhan selama ini tidak akan berjaya merealisasikan aspirasi untuk mencapai darjah ketaqwaan. Amalan Ramadhan umat Islam hari ini adalah tidak sama dengan amalan para salaf al-salih. Dahulu, para sahabat Rasulullah menanti-nantikan dan merindui Ramadhan. Mereka bergembira menghidupkan Ramadhan dengan tarawih, tadarus, tahajud, qiyamullail dan sebagainya. Laungan selawat dan tasbih menguasai suasana. Amalan bersedekah menjadi lumrah dan kebajikan golongan tidak berkemampuan diambil berat dan dibela. Di kala Ramadhan meninggalkan mereka, para sahabat menangis dan bersedih kerana takut tidak ketemu lagi Ramadhan yang mulia. Alangkah indahnya suasana Ramadhan ketika itu.

Kini, syawal lebih dinantikan berbanding Ramadhan. Suasana Ramadhan hanya meriah tatkala di permulaannya. Masjid dan surau hanya penuh di awal Ramadhan dan hampir lengang diakhirnya. Di sepanjang jalan kelihatan bazaar Ramadhan yang dihadiri ribuan umat Islam membeli juadah berbuka walaupun waktu Maghrib hampir menjelang tiba. Lagu-lagu raya dimainkan di mana-mana tatkala selawat dan salam lebih utama. Paling menyedihkan jumlah kehilangan nyawa akibat kemalangan jalanraya terus berleluasa dan tidak kurang angka statistiknya.

Setelah melihat kepada situasi dan amalan Ramadhan umat Islam pada hari ini secara umumnya, dapatlah disimpulkan bahawa Ramadhan yang disambut setiap tahun itu tidak akan dapat mengubah diri, masyarakat negara dan umat. Ini memandangkan amalan Ramadhan itu tidak dimanifestasikan dengan matlamat ketaqwaan. Di dalam berbicara mengenai matlamat ketaqwaan, persoalan yang besar diajukan ialah bagaimana atau apakah formula untuk mencapai darjat ketaqwaan. Umat Islam pada hari ini perlu melakukan transformasi diri atau dalam erti kata lain melaksanakan proses ’Islah al Nafs’ atau reformasi diri. Sepertimana perkara yang lain, usaha untuk mencapai taqwa perlu melalui proses ’reformasi diri’. ’Islah al Nafs’ ini perlu dilaksanakan satu persatu secara konsisten, ikhlas dan itqan. Penulis membahagikan proses mencapai makam ketaqwaan ini kepada empat fasa seperti berikut: –

(a) Berilmu.

Ketaqwaan tidak akan dapat dicapai melainkan dengan ilmu. Hanya dengan ilmu yang sahih dapat memberi petunjuk kepada kita mengenai cara dan amalan yang boleh mendekatkan diri kepada Allah. Hanya dengan ilmu yang benar bersumberkan nas-nas yang sahih akan memastikan amalan yang dilakukan diterima Allah. Amalan dan ibadah yang bertentangan dengan amalan Rasulullah dan berunsurkan bidaah dhalalah bukan sahaja tidak diterima oleh Allah bahkan ianya boleh menjadi faktor kemurkaan Allah.

(b) Beramal

Taqwa itu sangat berkait rapat dengan amalan. Tanpa amalan walaupun berilmu tidak akan dapat membuatkan seseorang mencapai darjat ketaqwaan. Begitu juga amalan yang dibuat sambil lewa juga tidak mendapat perhatian daripada Allah. Amalan Ramadhan Rasulullah sesungguhnya perlu dijadikan panduan dan rujukan dalam segenap aspek. Dalam hal ini setiap amalan itu juga perlu mempunyai ciri-ciri Itqan, Istiqamah dan Ikhlas.

(i) Itqan: Rasulullah bersabda: Allah mengasihi seorang hamba kalau ia melakukan sesuatupekerjaan ia melakukannya dengan sempurna (Al-Tabarani).
(ii) Istiqamah: Dan sesungguhnya amal yang paling dicintai Allah adalah yang terus menerus meskipun sedikit.(Muttafaq ‘alaih)
(iii) Ikhlas: Amirul Mu’minin, Abi Hafs Umar Al Khattab, dia berkata: Saya mendengar Rasulullah bersabda: Sesungguhnya setiap perbuatan tergantung niatnya. Dan sesungguhnya setiap orang (akan dibalas) berdasarkan apa yang dia niatkan. Siapa yang hijrahnya karena (ingin mendapatkan keridhaan) Allah dan Rasul-Nya, maka hijrahnya kepada (keridhaan) Allah dan Rasul-Nya. Dan siapa yang hijrahnya karena dunia yang dikehendakinya atau karena wanita yang ingin dinikahinya maka hijrahnya (akan bernilai sebagaimana) yang dia niatkan (Bukhari dan Muslim).

(c) Berdoa dan Bertawakkal

Berdoa merupakan senjata orang mukmin. Sebagai hamba kepada Allah, amalan berdoa dengan sepenuh hati tanpa jemu akan menjadikan diri merasa sangat kecil di hadapan Allah. Doa ini pula mesti diikuti dengan tawakkal iaitu konsep berserah pada ketentuan Allah. Konsep doa dan tawakkal ini yang akan menambahkan ciri ketaqwaan kepada Allah di mana ianya memperlihatkan peranan kita sebagai hamba Allah yang menyerahkan sepenuh jiwa raga kepadaNya.

(d) Syukur dan Redha

Setelah melalui ketiga-tiga fasa di atas, setiap individu yang ingin mencapai darjat ketaqwaan perlu memenuhi ciri-ciri fasa terakhir iaitu syukur dengan nikmat dan anugerah Allah dan redha dengan apa sahaja ujian, pemberian dan penentuan Allah. Konsep syukur dan redha ini merupakan natijah dari ilmu, amal, doa dan tawakkal. Melalui institusi Ramadhan yang menguji keimanan melalui pembentukan jiwa menerusi amalan ibadah yang disyariatkan akan dapat mendidik diri ke arah pembinaan insan yang bertaqwa.

Kesimpulan

Ruh dan intipati Ramadhan perlu diberi penghayatan dan diterjemahkan ke dalam hidup umat Islam sepertimana hidupnya Ramadhan sewaktu zaman Rasulullah. Penghayatan Ramadhan melalui penterjemahan ruh dan intipatinya merupakan pencetus kepada matlamat ketaqwaan. Makam Taqwa itu pula penentu kepada harga diri kita di mata Allah. Hanya dengan pakaian taqwa kita akan mendapat rahmat dan berkat Allah serta mempunyai harga di mata Allah. Apabila kita mendapat rahmat Allah ini, maka dengan itu jugalah segala usaha ke arah pembangunan diri, negara, bangsa dan umat akan mendapat keberkatan dan tidak akan menjadi sia-sia. Sesuai dengan sambutan kemerdekaan yang ke-54 ini juga marilah kita jadikan Ramadhan sebagai titik tolak dan asas pengukuhan Taqwa demi kesejahteraan umat Islam. Hayatilah roh Ramadhan al-Mubarak hanya untuk mendapat keredhaan Allah dan hidupkanlah semarak semangat kemerdekaan melalui penghayatan Ramadhan serta jadikan taqwa sebagai dasar pembangunan ke arah kecemerlangan dunia dan akhirat.

Best Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

With Professor Tariq Ramadhan, (Professor of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Oxford University) at Bangi, Selangor

My Recent Book: Shari’ah Governance in Islamic Banks

Shari’ah Governance in Islamic Banks
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

Available at: http://www.euppublishing.com/book/9780748645589

An in-depth and insightful study of Shari’ah governance from a theoretical and practical perspective
Shari’ah governance has a profound influence on the day-to-day practice of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) and each jurisdiction has adopted a different approach to developing a governance framework. This book reviews these pluralistic approaches and identifies best practice.

Covers the following aspects:

Theoretical aspects of corporate and Shari’ah governance
The regulatory framework for Shari’ah governance
Shari’ah governance approaches
The role of the Shari’ah Board and the mechanisms for ensuring its independence, transparency and competence
Operational procedures of Shari’ah governance
An assessment of the Shari’ah Board
Examples, case studies and practical discussions based on IFIs in Malaysia, the GCC countries of Bahrain, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait & Saudi Arabia and the UK enliven the text.

Hardback
ISBN: 9780748645589
Price: £75.00

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

Hasan, Z. (2012). Shari’ah Governance in Islamic Banks. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

FNB sharia banking credentials questioned as board quits

FNB sharia banking credentials questioned as board quits

FARANAAZ PARKER Available at: http://mg.co.za/article/2012-07-09-fnb-islamic-finance-unit

FNB’s Islamic Finance unit has suffered a setback after its sharia board quit, bringing the unit’s sharia compliance credentials into question.

The dispute between FNB and the sharia board overseeing its Islamic Finance unit has highlighted some of the difficulties of trying to accommodate two inherently different systems of banking in one financial institution.

Last week the sharia board of FNB Islamic Finance resigned citing an “untenable breakdown in trust”. Board chairperson Mufti Ebrahim Desai said the board could not vouch for FNB’s Islamic Finance products.

“Those products that we had endorsed will remain valid for as long as there are no changes. However, as we no longer supervise the implementation, we cannot endorse the same,” he said.

Desai told the Mail & Guardian that there had been ongoing difficulties between the board and bank officials, since news emerged of wrongdoing within the unit towards the end of last year.

In January, the M&G reported on the shake-up at FNB’s sharia division, which was rocked by claims of misappropriation of funds, conflicts of interest, unfair labour practices, and mistreatment of staff, board illegitimacy and fraud.

Ebi Patel, the former head of the division, was put on special leave while an internal investigation was conducted.

It found internal breaches of operational procedure and corporate governance failures, and documents showed that special deals were worked out for friends and family.
Patel was reinstated but faced disciplinary action. When Patel tendered his resignation from the company in June, the bank denied that the move was linked to the investigation and said he was retiring “for personal reasons”.

Patel was replaced by Amman Muhammad, former MD of Absa Islamic Banking, at the beginning of the month.

Desai said the bank had “showed they regarded the sharia board with total disdain and … had lack of trust in us” and that it had violated an undertaking to consult with the board on appointments within the unit.

“This is not a matter of us interfering with governance issues, we needed to know who would be there because that’s the type of person we’d be working with.”

On Friday, FNB moved to reassure its Muslim customers that the termination of its sharia board’s services did not invalidate its sharia certification.

It said it had “mutually terminated” the services of its three-member sharia board as the parties had “differing views of the role of the board in the operational management of the business”.

The bank has set up a sharia supervisory compliance oversight committee to fill the gap until it can reconstitute a permanent sharia board.

It reassured customers that the termination of the sharia board’s services in no way altered the compliance of its existing products and services, or the validation of its sharia certification.

The Muslim Judicial Council’s Moulana Taha Karaan said the incident had raised eyebrows in the Muslim community.

“People would like some clear answers as to what’s happening,” he said.

“Unfortunately the statements released tend to create the impression that sharia compliance might be at stake.”

Karaan, however, said there was no need for panic.

“The next few months will show us whether the new board or management seeks to change things in the product structure. At this moment … they’re doing the same deals they used to do before, in terms of contractual structures,” he said.

“Sharia-compliance of the products is not at stake.”

Meanwhile, Stuart Grobler, chairperson of the Banking Association’s committee for Islamic banking, said integrating Islamic banking into conventional banks can be complicated.

“The difficulty for an organisation like [banks] is that they have a normal managerial hierarchy or accountability, and then across that you impose this sharia board which you would comprise of certain scholars, muftis or imams, who are not necessarily business oriented. But they are the final arbiter of what is sharia compliant, so every financial component or every deal is approved by the sharia board,” he said.

“You can imagine how that would affect management prerogatives, accountability and responsibility.”

Sharia law requires an “underlying asset”, so transactions cannot be paper-based. Islamic bankers may also not invest in companies that are too highly leveraged or earn a disproportionate amount of revenue through interest.

Muslims may not use interest so any interest accrued through conventional banking systems is usually donated to charity. However, if a Muslim invests in a sharia compliant bank or financial product, the returns on an investment are derived through alternative mechanisms, and they can use the proceeds.

Islamic banking has been identified by national treasury as one way to attract investment from Islamic countries, particularly in the Middle East, and processes are in place to create a regulatory framework that would facilitate this.

In December last year national treasury invited banking institutions to submit proposals for the provision of advisory services for the structuring and issuance of a government Islamic bond, known as a “sukuk” in local and international markets.

The evaluation of the bids has been completed and a consortium comprising Standard Bank, Liquidity House, Nova Capital, BNP Paribas, Albaraka and Regiments Capital has been appointed to set up a programme and issue a debut sukuk on behalf of the Republic of South Africa.

Also read

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

Cape Town, South Africa

Highly-paid sharia boards could face shake-up in Islamic finance review

Highly-paid sharia boards could face shake-up in Islamic finance review

By Bernardo Vizcaino
DUBAI | Sun Apr 29, 2012 11:12am BST
(Reuters) – Islamic finance may face its biggest shake-up in years as a top standard-setting body seeks to reform the way the industry does business, including the role of highly paid scholars in enforcing religious principles.

Khaled Al Fakih, the new secretary-general of the Bahrain-based Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), outlined plans for a sweeping review of its guidelines in an interview with Reuters.

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Some of AAOIFI’s reforms may prove controversial by challenging entrenched interests in the fast-growing business. Islamic financial assets hit $1.3 trillion globally last year, a 150 percent rise in the past five years as the industry expanded beyond core markets in the Middle East and Malaysia, financial lobby group TheCityUK estimates.

“We would like to see insightful debate…that can help us develop standards that can benefit the industry,” Fakih said by email from Bahrain, ahead of AAOIFI’s annual meeting there on May 7 and 8.

His organisation plans to start consultations on reforming the operations of sharia boards, the groups of Islamic scholars which rule on whether financial institutions’ activities and products are religiously acceptable, by the middle of this year. A final draft of the reforms is not expected to be ready before the end of next year at the earliest.

AAOIFI will also work on a new framework for disclosing financial data, and will look at revising standards for takaful (Islamic insurance), investment accounts and other products.

Fakih, a Lebanese-born commercial banker who took over at AAOIFI in February, said basic elements of Islamic finance such as murabaha, mudaraba and ijara – structures designed to permit investment while obeying religious bans on paying interest and pure monetary speculation – would be reviewed next year.

CONTROVERSY

For many in the industry, AAOIFI’s review cannot come too soon. Although far smaller than conventional banking, which has tens of trillions of dollars of assets, Islamic finance has grown much more quickly in the last few years, so its flaws could start to affect banking systems and economies.

Much of its growth has occurred because it can count on the support of large pools of sharia-compliant funds in the booming Gulf and southeast Asia, which have not pulled back during the global financial crisis as Western funds have.

Last year’s Arab Spring uprisings in the Middle East promise a fresh wave of growth; new, Islamist-led governments want to promote the industry after their authoritarian predecessors discouraged it for ideological reasons.

But the growth has exposed weaknesses in Islamic finance. One is the lack of a clear consensus on what products and procedures are permissible; the sharia boards of individual banks and investment firms can issue conflicting rulings.

This can create big controversies. When Goldman Sachs (GS.N) announced last October that it planned a $2 billion sukuk issue, which would make it one of the first top Western banks to raise money in that way, its own sharia advisors approved the plan. But some other scholars criticised it; six months later, the sukuk has not been issued and it is not clear when it might be.

The sharia board system is open to accusations of conflict of interest because scholars are paid handsomely – in some cases, with hourly fees of $1,000 or more – by the very firms whose behaviour they are supervising.

The ambiguity in regulation has let some Islamic financial institutions, such as Kuwait’s Investment Dar, argue in court that contracts into which they had entered were not valid because they were not sharia-compliant in the first place.

AAOIFI plans to improve the operations of sharia boards by strengthening the certification process for scholars, Fakih said. The organisation currently offers scholars two professional credentials, but they have been criticised as not sufficiently rigorous and too easy to obtain.

In addition, AAOIFI is developing new guidance on the relationship between Islamic financial firms and their sharia boards, “similar to international best practices on terms of reference for financial institutions’ board of directors”.

One way to reduce conflicts of interest might be to limit the length of scholars’ tenure at individual firms, to prevent them from forming excessively close relationships with their employers that might compromise their objectivity. However, Fakih did not mention this idea. Current AAOIFI standards acknowledge “engagement over a prolonged period of time may pose a threat to independence”, but do not prescribe specific limits.

AAOIFI will also look at ways of fostering the rise of a new, younger generation of Islamic scholars, through steps such as training courses, Fakih said. This could remove a bottleneck to growth in the industry by loosening the dominance of about two dozen veteran scholars who have practiced for decades and hold multiple board positions.

RESISTANCE

It is not yet clear whether reformers in AAOIFI will be able to push through changes over the potential opposition of many veteran scholars and financiers who profit from the status quo.

Yasser Dalhawi, chief executive of Syariah Review Bureau, an Islamic finance advisory firm in Saudi Arabia, said change would be difficult. But he added that many people in the wider industry would support change as a way of ensuring growth and bringing Islamic finance closer to its religious principles.

A survey of customers’ attitudes to sharia boards, conducted a few years ago by a Gulf financial firm, found widespread dissatisfaction which was expressed in some cases with expletives, one prominent scholar told Reuters, declining to be named because of the sensitivity of the issue.

To balance opposition to change within AAOIFI, Fakih seems to want to involve the widest possible range of industry interests in the debate; he called for “rigorous and meaningful discussions…not only among scholars but also with all participants of Islamic finance.”

His plans to release a series of draft proposals for public consultation mark a change from AAOIFI’s past style, which relied more on decisions made behind closed doors.

ENFORCEMENT

In its review, AAOIFI is also expected to discuss strengthening enforcement of its standards across the globe. They are not backed by any legal sanction, so national financial regulators decide whether to enforce them.

Currently only a small number of countries, including Bahrain and Qatar, have adopted AAOIFI standards wholesale; others use them as references without making them compulsory.

“Unless you have a global rule, it is not really going to work as it creates arbitrage opportunities,” said Murat Unal, board member at Funds@Work, a German-based consultancy. He added that in some cases, scholars had avoided strict local regulation by offering their services in countries with looser standards.

At an Islamic finance seminar in Dubai this month, Muddassir Siddiqui, a prominent scholar from Malaysia, pressed his fellow panellists on who could strengthen global enforcement. There was no concrete response except for the vague idea of an international body of some sort.

AAOIFI might conceivably work around this by requiring all scholars, regardless of the country where they are located, to adhere to a code of conduct that would effectively transcend legal or territorial boundaries. But powerful figures inside AAOIFI might oppose anything which limited their room for manoeuvre so drastically.

In any case, the 21-year-old organisation is likely to have to grapple with such issues as it tries to preserve its status in the industry. So much money is now flowing into Islamic finance that other bodies, such as national regulators, may jump in if AAOIFI does not solve problems.

Some are already doing so. Last year Qatar’s central bank banned Islamic windows, which allow conventional banks to offer sharia-compliant products. AAOIFI already had standards which let Islamic windows function if their funds were segregated from the banks’ conventional operations. But Qatar decided those standards were not sufficient – a warning sign for AAOIFI as it tries to win industry support for its reforms.

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

International Islamic University Malaysia

Islamic banking: Is it closer to Luther and Jesus than Christian banking?

Islamic banking: Is it closer to Luther and Jesus than Christian banking?

By Andrew Jones Available at: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/emergentvillage/2012/07/islamic-banking-is-it-closer-to-luther-and-jesus-than-christian-banking/

Today is the day that a men-in-black team called Moneyval gather to “discuss a report assessing the Holy See’s progress in preventing money laundering and terrorism financing, a crucial step toward international recognition as a financially responsible country”. People are wondering whether the Vatican Bank, or the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR), will emerge an opaque, corrupt, money-laundering pathetic excuse of a financial institution or, rather, as a shining beacon of Christian financial principles to the glory of God and the amazement of a world still reeling from a global financial crisis caused by greed, corruption, a culture of debt and lack of financial accountability. Or somewhere in between.

This is part of the painful but necessary reformation of the church and I have spoken of it before:
“Blinded by their dollar bills and unable to hear God’s voice in all matters financial, the church turned into green sludge. So God began to raise up secular spokespeople and worldly organizations to bring the much needed reform in His church. This is where we are today.” Andrew Jones, KaChing in the KaChurch.
Muslims in the West, meanwhile, fight for the right to have interest-free banking, enabling them to avoid “Riba” [a kind of usury] which is condemned in the Koran. Islamic banking has been suggested as a solution to the global financial crisis.

In Nigeria last year, while Nigerian Christian leaders were making waves on the Forbes Top Richest list, a group Anglican bishops were trying to condemn and Islamic banking, which inspired The Muslim Congress to quote the Bible to the Christians:

“We wonder if the Nigerian Clergymen are familiar with their religious history with regard to fight again interest and usurious dealings. With specific reference to Christianity and Judaism, there are several Biblical injunctions which prohibit the act of giving and collection of interest. God instructed the Jews and Christians thus:

“Thou shall not lend to thy brother money to usury, nor corn, nor any other thing, but to the stranger. To thy brother thou shall lend that which he wanted, without usury: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all thy works in the land, which thou shall go into posses. (Deut 23:19-20). TMC Press Release
Islamic banking has since been declared illegal in Nigeria.
All this is very strange, especially considering that the Vatican suggested in 2009 that “the principles of Islamic Finance may represent a possible cure for ailing markets.” By Islamic Finance, I think they mean interest-free usury-avoiding banking in general, the kind that Christians used to practice and Muslims still do.

“Riba is instrumental in concentrating wealth in the hands of a few, thus violating the principle of social justice, which underlies all economic activities in Islam.” Islamic Banking in Australia
“No wonder that the zinss contractors quickly become richer than other people . . . Emperor, kings, princes, and lords ought to watch over this matter, look after their lands and people, and help and rescue them from the gaping jaws of usury;”. Martin Luther, Sermon on Usury

I should mention that some people suggest Luther’s teachings on this subject are of more historical than theoretical value, but still, there is no doubt that Christians today do not practice in their banking what they used to practice and Muslim banking practices might be closer to the ideals of the Christian Bible than what is presently on offer. Not always, but usually.

Meanwhile, at a Gospel Coalition conference last month in USA, evangelicals were asking the question:
How Islamic can Christianity Be? “Can a Muslim who now follows Jesus fast during Ramadan? Can a Muslim who follows Jesus use the Islamic prayer stances? Where do we draw the line?”

I am tempted to change the question: How Christian can Islamic banking be?

Can a Muslim who now follows Jesus better practice biblical principles of usury-free banking through their Islamic bank OR through a “Christian” bank that might have strayed from the principles of the Bible, and from the practices of the early church, and from the clear urgings of Martin Luther to avoid usury-like financial instruments [zinss]?

It’s a hot discussion right now, considering the Wycliffe Bible translation controversy. Too much to tackle in this short post, anyway.

In the meantime, I am waiting to hear the results about the Vatican Bank. I am thinking of shifting my vast fortunes over to their coffers. NOT!

Hey, if you want to put another spin on this conversation . . . change “banking” to “butchery” and ask why some Christians are choosing to get their meat from Muslim Halal butchers because their cruelty-free philosophy is closer to what they believe the Bible teaches on how we should treat the animals we eat.

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

Advocate and Solicitor, High Court of Malaya

New Rules of Court 2012 to replace Rules of the High Court 1980 and Subordinate Court Rules 1980

Siaran Akhbar: Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012

Available at: gwww.malaysianbar.org.my/notices_for_members/siaran_akhbar_kaedah_kaedah_mahkamah_2012.html

Pejabat Ketua Hakim Negara
Mahkamah Persekutuan Malaysia
Istana Kehakiman
Putrajaya

Siaran Akhbar
Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012

Adalah dimaklumkan bahawa Jawatankuasa Kaedah-Kaedah yang ditubuhkan di bawah seksyen 17 Akta Mahkamah Kehakiman 1964 dan seksyen 3 Akta Kaedah Mahkamah Rendah 1955 yang terdiri daripada wakil Badan Kehakiman, Jabatan Peguam Negara, Majlis Peguam, Persatuan Peguam Sarawak, Persatuan Undang-Undang Sabah dan dipengerusikan oleh YAA Ketua Hakim Negara telah memperkenalkan Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012 (Rules of Court 2012) bagi menggantikan Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah Tinggi 1980 (Rules of the High Court 1980) dan juga Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah Rendah 1980 (Subordinate Courts Rules 1980). Kaedah Mahkamah baru menggabungkan Kaedah-Kaedah yang terpakai bagi kes sivil di Mahkamah Tinggi dan Mahkamah Rendah.

Tujuan Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012 ini dibuat adalah untuk memudahkan dan menyeragamkan prosedur sivil di Mahkamah serta meningkatkan mutu penyampaian sistem keadilan di Malaysia. Diantara ciri-ciri baru yang dibuat ialah;

i) prosidur sivil di Mahkamah Tinggi dan Mahkamah Rendah diseragamkan dan dipermudahkan.
ii) untuk pertama kalinya, teks sahih bagi kaedah-kaedah ini dibuat dalam Bahasa Malaysia.
iii) cara memulakan kes di Mahkamah telah dipermudahkan daripada 4 cara kepada hanya 2 cara iaitu melalui writ saman (writ of summons) atau saman pemula (originating summons) sahaja.
iv) permohonan interlokutori di kedua-dua Mahkamah diseragamkan dengan hanya menggunakan notis permohonan dan tidak lagi saman dalam kamar (summons in chambers)

Jawatankuasa Kaedah-kaedah dan Jawatankuasa kecil Kaedah-Kaedah yang ditubuhkan ini telah bersidang sebanyak 15 kali semenjak tahun 2009 bagi menyediakan dan memuktamadkan draf akhir Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012. Akhirnya, Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah tersebut telah diluluskan oleh kedua-dua Jawatankuasa Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah pada 26 Jun 2012 dan akan dikuatkuasakan mulai 1 Ogos 2012 .

Para pengamal undang-undang dan orang ramai boleh mendapatkan salinan Kaedah-Kaedah Mahkamah 2012 di laman web http://www.federalgazette.agc.gov.my, http://www.kehakiman.gov.my atau http://www.malaysianbar.org.my.

Disediakan oleh:
Che Wan Zaidi bin Che Wan Ibrahim
Pegawai Khas I kepada
YAA Ketua Hakim Negara

Regards
Zulkifli Hasan

With Professor Rodney Wilson, Durham University